Where does the LSC fit into the big Y picture?
SNPs and STRs are two types of mutations of our DNA. Once they happen, the new variation is passed down to subsequent generations. The pattern of mutations can be used to reconstruct our family tree.
SNPs are far more stable than STR markers, and if they mutate, they typically won't mutate again along a lineage. Because of their stability, they can be used to identify branches of the Y-tree, called haplogroups. We can trace one particular lineage back up the Y-tree and come across the SNP mutations which distinguish the succession of branchings of the tree.
Testing at FTDNA, ScotlandsDNA and FullGenomes has taken place to determine which SNPs men in the LSC carry. Most of the common SNPs discovered are a result of full y-chromosome sequencing of either Alex Williamson or Jim Wilson. This will change however as test results from the "Big Y" test at FTDNA begin to arrive. Any SNP that happened before the founding of the LSC will be carried by all LSC men. However, there are many SNPs that are carried by only some men in the cluster.
The tree below summarizes our current understand of SNPs relevant to the LSC. Rather than starting at the beginning, we've started the tree at a SNP labelled L21/S145. This SNP is present in a large fraction of men in Western Europe, and particularly in the British Isles. It is thought to have happened somewhere in continental Europe about 4000 years ago, and has been brought to the British Isles many times since. We don't yet have any idea of when the LSC line was brought to Scotland, but it was before the founding of the cluster about 1200 years ago.
In the table above, we can tell that the Reddin men in the cluster will test positive for SNPs S424, S426, S3025, and other SNPs "above" him, but will be negative for all those SNPs on parallel branches, such as S190, etc. Similarly, the Sloan and Chambers men would test positive for S425, S5033; S190, S307, S308, ...; as well as S424, S426, etc. At present most of the LSC men fall in the branch under S190, and don't have any other SNPs identifying them.
Those SNPs that are labelled starting with "FG(C)" were found in Alex Williamson's FullGenomes test. Those with "S" numbers were generally found in Jim Wilson's DNA. However, there are some new "S" series SNPs (those greater than 27000) that were found in comparing the Williamson and Wilson results. The CTS1199 SNP for Colson was found in his Chromo2 results at ScotlandsDNA.
The table below outlines the full list of known LSC related SNPs:
|22282169||S27830||C||A||unverified S424 or S190 branch or deeper|
|22502171||S27832||G||T||unverified S424 or S190 branch or deeper|
|22503198||S27833||T||G||unverified S424 or S190 branch or deeper|
|58840834||S27834||G||T||unverified S424 or S190 branch or deeper|
|7387922||FGC3184/S3032||C||G||unverified S424 or S190 branch|
|23358213||S3106||T||C||unverified S424 or S190 branch|
|3148534||FGC3178/S3020||C||T||unverified S424 or S190 branch|
|7042716||S3029||G||A||unverified S424 or S190 branch|
|5433952||S27821||G||A||unverified S424 or S190 branch|
|6408924||FGC3180/S27822||A||G||unverified S424 or S190 branch|
|7323076||FGC3183/S27823||T||C||unverified S424 or S190 branch|
|15656831||S27825||T||C||unverified S424 or S190 branch|
|16815343||S27826||A||T||unverified S424 or S190 branch|
|16680097||FGC3215/S27827||GT||G||unverified S424 or S190 branch|
|25288792||S428||C||A||unverified S424 or S190 branch|
|27512831||S429||T||C||unverified S424 or S190 branch|
|4687827||FGC3195||A||G||unverified S424 or S190 branch|
|18017942||FGC3209||G||A||unverified S424 or S190 branch|
|15117619||FGC3205||G||T||unverified S424 or S190 branch|
|21475911||FGC3210||G||A||unverified S424 or S190 branch|
|4511965||FGC3194||A||G||unverified S424 or S190 branch|
|13707656||S27829||A||T||unverified S424 or S190 branch|
|22360358||S27831||T||C||unverified S424 or S190 branch|
|4420341||S304||A||G||unverified S3033 or Wilson branches|
|7438341||S305||T||C||unverified S3033 or Wilson branches|
|23612105||S306||G||C||unverified S3033 or Wilson branches|
|18923893||S3063||T||C||unverified S3033 or Wilson branches|
|7044065||S3030||T||C||unverified S3033 or Wilson branches|
|3963309||S27803||T||C||unverified S3033 or Wilson branches|
|22347756||S27806||T||G||unverified S3033 or Wilson branches|
|22424911||S27807||A||G||unverified S3033 or Wilson branches|
|22430522||S27808||A||C||unverified S3033 or Wilson branches|
|22492943||S27809||T||C||unverified S3033 or Wilson branches|
|22493885||S27811||C||G||unverified S3033 or Wilson branches|
|22496797||S27813||A||C||unverified S3033 or Wilson branches|
|22502005||S27814||T||G||unverified S3033 or Wilson branches|
|22636405||S27815||T||A||unverified S3033 or Wilson branches|
|22903880||S27816||G||A||unverified S3033 or Wilson branches|
|27522981||S27817||G||A||unverified S3033 or Wilson branches|
|58833713||S27818||T||C||unverified S3033 or Wilson branches|
|58840380||S27819||G||C||unverified S3033 or Wilson branches|
|58860045||S27820||G||C||unverified S3033 or Wilson branches|
|21152636||S27828||T||C||unverified S3033 or Wilson branches|
|13378373||FGC3186/S27824||C||T||unverified Williamson/NA12043 branch?|
|26722140||FGC3213||A||C||unverified Williamson/NA12043 branch?|
|3899172||FGC3193||G||T||unverified Williamson/NA12043 branch?|
|23275266||FGC3212||C||G||unverified Williamson/NA12043 branch?|
|3779037||FGC3192||A||C||unverified Williamson branch|
|6067820||FGC3196||A||T||unverified Williamson branch|
|7952608||FGC3197||T||C||unverified Williamson branch|
|7992480||FGC3198||C||T||unverified Williamson branch|
|8790228||FGC3199||A||G||unverified Williamson branch|
|8980644||FGC3200||T||A||unverified Williamson branch|
|9085250||FGC3201||G||T||unverified Williamson branch|
|9114725||FGC3202||G||T||unverified Williamson branch|
|13128633||FGC3203||A||C||unverified Williamson branch|
|13979797||FGC3204||T||C||unverified Williamson branch|
|15452508||FGC3206||G||A||unverified Williamson branch|
|21617233||FGC3211||A||C||unverified Williamson branch|
|28675156||FGC3214||T||C||unverified Williamson branch|
|14439921||FGC3216||CAT||C||unverified Williamson branch|
|21464771||FGC3217||GTTC||G||unverified Williamson branch|
|7264950||CTS1199||C||T||Colson branch or larger|
Various members of the cluster have been tested to determine their haplogroup. As new SNPs are constantly being discovered, there is always a need for more testing to be done. On November 7, 2008 Steven Colson, a cluster member, tested positive for the SNP L21, making our cluster's haplogroup R-L21*. In August of 2011, Clif Hinds and Frank Boggs tested positive for the newly discovered DF21, making our cluster's haplogroup R-DF21. S424 and S190 date back to 2012, while S425 and S5033 are from October, 2013.
There are two common systems in place to label various haplogroups. Both have their own advantages and disadvantages. The "long" form was the original one in use. However, as it continued to get longer and longer, a short form became popular. Depending on the family in the LSC, different haplogroup names are appropriate.
For our parent clade L21, the common short form designation for all men who carry this SNP is either R-L21 or sometimes R1b-L21. The current long form designation as used by FTDNA is R1b1a2a1a1b4. This long form describes the path along a specific tree to get to the terminal SNP. In this case, start at "R", then take branch 1, then branch "b", then branch 1, then branch "a", etc. When there weren't so many branches, this wasn't so bad.
Nowadays, the short form is much more common to see. For the Reddin men in the cluster, then would say their haplogroup is R-S424 or R-S424*. The * indicates that they have tested negative for the known children clades of R-424, such as S190, etc. The majority of the LSC men have haplogroup R-S190. The Sloans and Chambers would have haplogroup R-S425. The SNPs above actually break up the Wilson family, and some of them have different designations from each other.
For those of you who have tested L21+, I encourage you to join the R-L21 Project at FTDNA. For those of you who have tested DF21+, I encourage you to join the R-DF21 Project at FTDNA. If you haven't already done so, I encourage all LSC men to join our project at FTDNA.